Multiplying Whole Numbers
Multiplication, which
simplifies addition, is the process of calculating the total of a number that is added together
a specific number of times. For example, 3 Ã— 4 means adding 3 together 4 times,
or 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 12. So 3 Ã— 4 = 12. The answer to a multiplication problem is called
the product.
PROCEDURE: To find the product of two whole numbers, align your numbers so
that the ones digits are in the same column. Multiply each digit of the top number
by the ones digit in the bottom number, carrying when necessary. Then multiply
each digit in the top number by the tens in the bottom number, regrouping
when necessary. Finally, add the partial products to find the final product.
SAMPLE PROBLEM: Find the product of 34 and 16.
Step 1: Align the numbers
vertically. Multiply each digit
in the top number by the ones
digit in the bottom number.
Carry when necessary.

Step 2: Multiply each digit in
the top number by the tens in
the bottom number. Imagine
adding a zero in the ones
column as a place holder.

Step 3: Add the
partial products.

The product is 544.
